2 mar. 2017

4º ESO MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS OF SEVILLE (Baroque-Realism)


In our visit to the Museum of Fine Arts we could see its exceptional collection that includes works from the Gothic period to the 20th Century. It is so large, that we have to focus our attention in some brilliant works. As you haven't studied these Art styles, I propose you to know the most basic characteristics of them in relation with History. 
* THE RENAISSENCE begins in Italy in the 15th century "Quattrocento" and ends in 16th century "Cinquecento"Historical context: Population increases, growth of cities (where the commercial bourgeoisie becomes important), trade increases, remains a stamental society, the monarchy becomes more powerful (Ferdinand and Isabella, Charles V). New mentality, Humanism (exalts the rational and free human being, believes in science, it is inspired by Greco-Roman civilization. The Christian religion takes a reform to make it more pure (Lutheranism ...) and Catholics make an Antireform to rectify its errors.
Art: Man and nature represent perfection, an ideal beauty (classic rules: proportion, order, harmony...) so there are many portraits, landscapes and nudes (anatomical study): mythology appears. Painting: perspective is used to create depth in landscapes. Importance of the line. They use a new technique, oil (which can be corrected).
Painters: Boticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo, Dürer, Luis de Morales...
  
    
   
* THE BAROQUE: begins in the 17th century in Europe until the 18th century. 

Historical Context: Ancient Regime, there is a crisis (agricultural, economical, epidemics ...) that makes the population decreases, while the power of the merchants and trade increases. National monarchies becomes into Absolute Monarchies, such as in France (Louis XIV). Scientific development (empirism) and religious freedom. 

ART: Importance of asymmetry and movement (curved lines). Exalted feelings are represented (drama). In Catholic countries, religious themes and in Protestant countries, portraits and everyday life themes. Painting: Importance of color, contrast between light and dark (chiaroscuro) and look for movement (diagonal, curved lines, foreshortening ...) and variety of themes: religious, mythological, portraits, historical landscapes, still lifes...
Painters: Caravaggio, Rubens, Vermeer, Rembrandt, Zurbarán, Murillo and Velazquez...
So remember...
- Colores vivos
- Efectos dramáticos, buscan conmover.
- Gestos expresivos y apasionados.
- Busca lo grotesco, lo feo, incluso desagradable.
- Importancia de la luz y la sombra: claroscuro.
- Inestabilidad, líneas diagonales, curvas, escorzos...
- Temas variados: religiosos, mitológicos, bodegones, retratos...
       
 
         
 
 
* Neoclassicism: late 18th and early 19th centuries. It reflected the classical art (Greece and Rome), order and reason. Neoclassicism was also a reaction against the ostentation of Baroque and the decorative Rococo supported by the French court, and also stimulated by the discovery of Roman ruins at Pompeii (1750). Painters: J.L David, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Sculptors: A. Canova. 

       

                    
* THE ROMANTICISM: When Absolutist leaders met at the Congress of Vienna (1815) to reorganise Europe under the Absolutism after the Napoleonic Empire, it became clear that the peoples' hopes for 'liberty, equality and fraternity' had not been realized. However, these ideas are kept in the minds of men.
Instead of praising the intellectualism (Neoclassicism), artists now began to celebrate the emotional intuition (Romanticism). Neoclassical  statism is rejected, it likes dynamism, color, and diverse themes: exoticism-orientalism, love, history, portraits, customs, landscapes... Romanticists idealized form, representing life as they felt it should exist.
*Painters: Delacroix, Gericault, C. Friedrich, Goya (exceptional), Esquivel, V. Becquer, Cabral Bejarano, Pérez Villaamil ... *Music: Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin...


Representa el naufragio de la fragata francesa "Méduse", que en 1816 frente a la costa de Mauritania encalló. Rápidamente unas 150 personas construyeron una balsa que quedó a la deriva. Durante los 13 días que tardaron en rescatarlos soportaron el hambre, la deshidratación, el canibalismo y la locura. Sólo sobrevivieron 15 personas. 
  
  

  

*Retrato del niño Carlos Pomar Margrand, Antonio Mª Esquivel - sala XIV   *Retrato de Bécquer, Valeriano Bécquer - sala XIII
*Baile en una caseta de feria, Cabral Bejarano - sala XIII   *Cueva del gato - sala XIII

* REALISM: (COSTUMBRISM in Andalucía)

After the French revolution and the Liberal revolutions (1850) that changed Absolutism, now importance of the bourgeoisie and the workers
It focuses on capturing the reality as it is, without exaggeration or idealism, they tried to be objective. It is original in how it represents these themes, for example, emphasizing economic differences in society. Diverse themes: History painting, portraits, genre-painting, and landscapes. 
Realists portrayed real people not idealized types. Realists began a direct observation of nature in their painting. They went out into the world to paint (not in the studio). *Painters: Courbet, Millet, Daumier, Gonzalo Bilbao, García Ramos...
So remember...
- Gusto por la vida cotidiana, sin idealismos clásicos ni románticos (sólo la realidad)
- Temas que les afectan: industrialización, revoluciones liberales, campesinos y sus condiciones de vida...
- Importancia de la realidad.
- Se muestran críticos con esa realidad (desfavorece a los más débiles)
- En ocasiones se centran en una realidad "alegre-amable", en Andalucía llamado "Costumbrismo".


 



         
  

 
*Las Cigarreras, Gonzalo Bilbao - sala XII    *Alfonso XIII, Gonzalo Bilbao - sala XII
*Baile por bulerías, García Ramos - sala XIV   *El niño del violín, García Ramos - sala XIV    *El monaguillo, Alfonso Grosso - sala XIV

ONLINE RESOURCES:

SEVILLIAN PAINTING IN THE 19th CENTURY. STUDENT'S TEAMS AND PAINTINGS

TEAMS
BAROQUE PAINTINGS
ROMANTIC/COSTUMBRIST PAINTINGS
1. "LOS PIO PIO'S CLUB": Raúl, Álvaro, Iván y Carmen
Murillo: Saint Felix of Cantalice with Child
García Ramos: Bulerías
2. "SKT 1": Malagón, Pedro, Manuel, Gonzalo
Murillo: Mourning of Christ

Valeriano D. Bécquer: Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer
3. "EL TRÍO ENTENTE" Alejandro / Luis / Iago
Murillo: Saint Anthony with the Child

Gonzalo Bilbao: Toilette
4. "LOS DIVINOS" Aarón, David, Carlos 
Juan de Roelas: Martyrdom of Saint Andrew

Cabral Bejarano: Dancing at the Seville fair
5. "LAS SS" Carlos / Álvaro / Samuel / Dani
Murillo: The Immaculate "  The colossal"
García Ramos: Boy with a violin


6. "LAS 4 FANTÁSTICAS" Humi / Elena / Malu / Natalia
Murillo: The Adoration of the shepherds
García Ramos: Couple dancing
7. "THE GIRLS" Ana, Victoria, Mónica y Marta
Murillo: Madonna of Sorrows

García Ramos: To see my Christ
8. "LOS LOURDISTAS" Carolina, Lucía, Macarena y Alfons
Valdés Leal: Madonna with Saint John
Gonzalo Bilbao: The cigar sellers
9. "LA COMUNIDAD DEL ANILLO" Paula, Andrea, Sara y Vicky
José de Ribera: Saint Theresa of Jesus
García Rodríguez: View of Seville
10. "LAS PURRUPAS HOOLIGANS" Claudia, Tania, María y Eva
Murillo: Stigmatization of Saint Francis
Sánchez Perrier: Triana
11. "TRANCAS Y PETANCAS" Cristóbal, Manuel, Iván y Pablo
José de Ribera: Santiago Apóstol (The Greater)

Alfonso Grosso: The Communion
12. KELLY / LUCÍA P. 


13. "CIRCA'S TEAM" Ainhoa y Mario


14. "THE COUSIN" Miguel Ángel y Alej. Mateo
Zurbarán: Saint Barbara

Juan de Roelas: Jesus to the Calvary

Herrera el Viejo: Vision of Saint Basile
Manuel Barrón: Cave of 
 the Cat

A.M. Esquivel: Boy with a horse

García Ramos: Malvaloca

      DATE: 15th March AT 12am and 12.30am (by groups of 25 students)
      DEADLINE: 29th March


      TASK 1: DESCRIBING A PAINTING
Hecho con Padlet

      TASK 2:
Hecho con Padlet
   
       TASK 3: INTERVIEW ABOUT THE MUSEUM, ROMANTICISM AND REALISM.
       TASK 4: TWITTER #fineartsmuseumseville17
Hecho con Padlet

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